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Poor opacity
Paint defects

Definition

  • Uneven coloration.
  • Substrate visible through top coat.

Cause
  • Insufficient top coat applied.
  • Incorrectly produced, uneven substrate (effect finishes).

Prevention
  • Keep to the film thicknesses specified on the Technical Data Sheets.
  • For low-opacity colors, use the specified surfacer.
  • Spray a neutral-coloured substrate.

Remedy
  • Sand the surface and respray.

 
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Poor opacity



Dirt inclusions
Paint defects

Definition

  • Particles projecting through the top coat.

Cause
  • Surface not carefully cleaned.
  • Faulty ceiling filters.
  • Pressure in the spray booth too low.
  • Unsuitable work clothes.
  • Dirty spray booth.

Prevention
  • Carefully blow off the surface, clean it and then wipe with a tack cloth.
  • Check filters regularly.
  • Wear lint-free overalls.
  • Maintain spray booth regularly.

Remedy
  • Sand defect lightly and polish.
  • Sand and respray large surfaces.

 
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Dirt inclusions



Orange peel / poor flow
Paint defects

Definition

  • Surface texture resembling orange peel.

Cause
  • Paint viscosity too high.
  • Fast, highly volatile reducers.
  • Incorrect nozzle size.
  • Spray gun too far from object; not enough paint applied.

Prevention
  • Set the right spray booth temperature.
  • Adapt the paint system to the repair job and spray booth temperature.
  • Set the right paint viscosity with a DIN viscosity cup.
  • Check and maintain spraying distance (follow spray gun manufacturer’s recommendations).

Remedy
  • On small surfaces, sanding and polishing are possible.
  • On large surfaces, sand down the texture and respray.

 
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Orange peel / poor flow



Holograms
Paint defects

Definition

  • 3D effect on dark paint surfaces on which a paint defect has been remedied.
  • Mostly elliptical or circular clouding; greyish iridescence like that of an oil film.

Cause
  • Remedying of defects and dust nibs on mostly dark top coats or clear coats.

Prevention
  • Use products specified by polish manufacturer.
  • Use suitable sanding materials.
  • Keep to the drying times for the paint systems employed. (Follow instructions on the Technical Data Sheets.)

Remedy
  • Treat surface again with suitable polishes.

 
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Holograms



Colour separation on sealant
Paint defects

Definition

  • Sealant visible through top coat.
  • Please click on the link to see the image in a larger format

Cause
  • Sealant overpainted too soon.
  • Insufficient wetting of top coat on sealant.

Prevention
  • Allow enough time for sealant to dry.
  • Apply a thin initial coat of base / top coat over seals.

Remedy
  • Respray.

 
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Colour separation on sealant



Runs
Paint defects

Definition

  • Paint runs on vertical body parts.

Cause
  • Uneven paint application.
  • Specified spray viscosity not observed.
  • Unsuitable reducers.
  • Material or spray booth temperature too low.
  • Film thicknesses too high.
  • Faulty spray gun (nozzle).
  • Flash-off between coats too short.

Prevention
  • Comply with instructions on object, paint and spray booth temperature.
  • Check spraying equipment regularly.
  • Mix and apply paint in accordance with the instructions on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy
  • After the specified drying time, flat any runs. If necessary, use an infrared heater for further drying and then polish.
  • If the runs have been sanded right through, respray.

 
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Runs



Clouding or mottling in metallic finishes
Paint defects

Definition

  • Uneven color / effect.

Cause
  • Faulty spray gun (nozzle).
  • Incorrect air pressure, unsuitable reducer, unsuitable spraying technique, unsuitable spray viscosity.

Prevention
  • Use mixing stick or DIN viscosity cup to obtain spray viscosity.
  • Maintain spray guns regularly.
  • Hold spray gun parallel to object while spraying (observe correct distance). Follow the spray gun manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Follow the application recommendations on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy
  • Allow clear coat to dry thoroughly, then sand the surface and respray.

 
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Clouding or mottling in metallic finishes
 



Solvent popping
Paint defects

Definition

  • Small bubbles in the top coat, some of them burst.

Cause
  • Excessive film thickness.
  • Top coat not allowed to flash off long enough before forced drying.
  • Specified spray viscosity not observed.
  • Unsuitable hardener or reducer.

Prevention
  • Apply paint in normal film thicknesses.
  • Keep to specified flash-off times.
  • Follow the instructions on spray viscosity, hardeners and reducers on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy
  • Sand the affected areas lightly with a sanding pad and respray within 24 hours. Do not sand pop marks open.
  • Where there are large bubbles / pop marks, sand down the surface completely and reapply the paint system.

 
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Solvent popping
 



Edge mapping
Paint defects

Definition

  • Edges showing through in the top coat.

Cause
  • Old paintwork not sanded down smoothly at the edges.
  • Putty and surfacer applied on top of elastic factory finish.
  • Surfacer sanded and recoated before it had fully dried.
  • Substrate not completely dry.
  • Priming material applied in excessive film thickness and not allowed to dry properly.

Prevention
  • Carry out a solvent test on the substrate (elastic / hard).
  • Apply putty to bare metal only.
  • On elastic substrates apply surfacer to complete panels.

Remedy
  • After the top coat has fully dried, fine-sand and polish.
  • Sand, isolate with a surfacer and spray again.

 
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Edge mapping



Polyester bleeding
Paint defects

Definition

  • Discoloured patches in metallic finishes.

Cause
  • Too much hardener in the polyester putty.

Prevention
  • Isolate areas of putty with suitable materials.
  • If necessary, use putty dispenser.
  • Avoid using excessive hardener in the putty.

Remedy
  • If too much hardener was used in polyester putty, sand off polyester putty and repeat application using correct putty / hardener ratio.

 
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Polyester bleeding



Water spotting
Paint defects

Definition

  • Marks and raised edges of water droplets on fresh finishes.

Cause
  • Warm, not fully hardened top coat spotted with water droplets, usually immediately after oven drying.

Prevention
  • Observe drying time.
  • Allow object to cool after oven drying.

Remedy
  • Lightly sand and polish.
  • Sand damaged area and respray.

 
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Water spotting



Sanding marks
Paint defects

Definition

  • Sanding marks with swollen edges.

Cause
  • Excessively coarse sanding materials for substrate preparation.

Prevention
  • Sand putty with P 120-180 (initial sanding) and P 240-320 (final sanding).
  • Surfacer: dry P 400-500, wet P 800-1200.
  • Follow instructions for substrate preparation on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy
  • When the top coat has fully dried, fine-sand and polish the paint surface.
  • To eliminate serious damage, sand paint surface and respray.

 
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Sanding marks



Moisture blistering
Paint defects

Definition

  • Small raised pimples appearing in the paint film.

Cause
  • Moisture absorbed by the substrate.
  • Insufficient substrate drying after wet sanding (particularly a problem with polyester products).
  • Condensation due to temperature fluctuations.
  • Polyester products not isolated.
  • Damp compressed air.

Prevention
  • Dry-sand and isolate polyester products.
  • Ensure that the supplied compressed air is clean.

Remedy
  • Sand down the affected area completely, matt-sand the unaffected remaining surface, clean with silicone remover, apply surfacer and then respray.

 
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Moisture blistering
 



Lifting / wrinkling
Paint defects

Definition

  • Lifting / wrinkling of the paint surface.

Cause
  • Substrate solvent-sensitive or not fully cured.
  • Areas where clear coat was sanded through to base coat either not isolated or isolated with an unsuitable surfacer.
  • Unsuitable substrate (e.g. aerosol-can finish with TPA or nitrocellulose paints).
  • Unsuitable priming materials, top coats or reducers.

Prevention
  • Carry out a solvent test on problem substrates.
  • Apply several thin coats of a 2K surfacer to problem substrates and allow longer flash-off.

Remedy
  • Completely remove the fully dried area of wrinkled top coat together with the affected substrate and apply the paint system again.
  • Before applying the top coat, lightly sand the entire area.

 
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Lifting / wrinkling
 



Pinholes
Paint defects

Definition

  • Small, pinhole-like depressions.

Cause
  • Air trapped in putty.
  • Excessive putty film thickness.
  • Incorrect spray viscosity for surfacer materials.
  • Excessive surfacer film thickness.
  • Insufficient flash-off between coats.

Prevention
  • Follow the application recommendations on the Technical Data Sheets.
  • Choose the right hardener for the temperature.
  • Observe flash-off times.

Remedy
  • Sand down pinholes, apply surfacer if necessary and reapply paint system.

 
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Pinholes
 



Matting
Paint defects

Definition

  • Loss of top coat gloss.

Cause
  • Surfacer not allowed to dry properly.
  • Unsuitable reducers or hardeners.
  • Hardener had already reacted with moisture.
  • Poor air circulation in drying oven.
  • Extraordinary climatic conditions.
  • Film thickness too high or low.

Prevention
  • Keep to the drying times and film thicknesses specified on the Technical Data Sheets.
  • Use only the recommended reducers.
  • Close hardener cans immediately after use.
  • Check air circulation in drying oven.

Remedy
  • After drying, polish the affected area to a full gloss or, alternatively, lightly sand the whole surface, clean with silicone remover and respray.

 
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Matting
 



Salt and pepper effect
Paint defects

Definition

  • Black and white stippling / impurities in the base coat.

Cause
  • Material insufficiently filtered.
  • Incorrect storage temperature (waterborne base coat).
  • Material past end of shelf life.
  • Insufficiently stirred base coat.

Prevention
  • Use a suitable strainer.
  • Observe storage temperature (as given on the Technical Data Sheets).
  • Stir the tinters in the mixing machine regularly.

Remedy
  • Sand and respray with uncontaminated material.

 
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Salt and pepper effect
 



Dirt and dust in the base coat
Paint defects

Definition

  • Dirt particles projecting from the base coat.

Cause
  • Base coat not filtered.
  • Incorrect cleaning of the surface (dirt from rebates, etc.).
  • Dirt from clothing (refinisher).
  • Unsuitable tack cloth / dirty spray booth and filters (ceiling, floor).

Prevention
  • Filter base coat.
  • Clean surface correctly (including rebates, etc.).
  • Wear clean overalls.
  • Use suitable tack cloth.
  • Maintain the spray booth regularly.

Remedy
  • Clean with silicone remover, tack cloth (sand if necessary) and reapply base coat.

 
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Dirt and dust in the base coat
 



Dirt and dust in the clear coat
Paint defects

Definition

  • Dirt particles projecting from the clear coat.

Cause
  • Clear coat not adequately filtered.
  • Incorrect cleaning of the surface (dirt from rebates, etc.).
  • Dirt from clothing (refinisher).
  • Dirty spray booth and filters.

Prevention
  • Filter clear coat well.
  • Clean surface correctly (including rebates, etc.).
  • Wear clean overalls.
  • Maintain the spray booth regularly.

Remedy
  • Sand (P 1500) and polish.
  • If exceptionally contaminated, sand and then respray base coat and clear coat.

 
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Dirt and dust in the clear coat
 



Poor adhesion
Paint defects

Definition

  • Loss of putty adhesion on bare metal (steel, zinc or aluminum).

Cause
  • Unsuitable substrate.
  • Putty overheating during IR drying.
  • Insufficient substrate preparation.

Prevention
  • Choose suitable putty for the substrate.
  • Observe distance from heater.
  • Choose correct preparation.

Remedy
  • Sand down and start again.

 
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Poor adhesion
 



Adhesion problems between base coat and clear coat
Paint defects

Definition

  • Poor adhesion between base coat and clear coat.
  • Clear coat peels off.

Cause
  • Insufficient flash-off before clear coat application.
  • Base coat film too thick.

Prevention
  • Observe flash-off times (follow instructions on the Technical Data Sheets).
  • Observe film thicknesses (follow instructions on the Technical Data Sheets).

Remedy
  • Sand and respray.

 
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Adhesion problems between base coat and clear coat
 



Halo effect in blending areas
Paint defects

Definition

  • Visible edge when blending in from the base coat.

Cause
  • Edge zone sprayed too dry / wet.
  • Incorrect spraying technique.
  • Spraying pressure too high.
  • Spray booth temperature too high.
  • No blend-in additive used.

Prevention
  • Check spray booth temperature.
  • Use blend-in additive in accordance with instructions on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy
  • Sand clear coat, and respray base coat and clear coat.

 
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Halo effect in blending areas
 


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